We never want to imagine something happening to us or our future but sadly it can happen at any point. Having having healthcare training I’ve helped show others how to do things like emergency first aid and CPR. I’ve also used it many times in both my jobs and in public, I’ve been able to provide first aid to people in emergency’s roadside till ambulances can arrive and take control so here’s some quick advice and obviously do your own research too. I am not trained to be giving out advice but if it can help then it’s worth the quick briefing to others.
First of all I’m going to start with staying calm in a emergency. You need to calm yourself and forget who the person is to you or what state they are. You need to take a few deep breaths and centre yourself then take control. Set jobs for other people if available and take charge or follow instructions if someone is already on scene and more confident with the situation. Shout for help as soon as you have confirmed a situation is underway.
CPR. (Cardiopulmonary resuscitation). This is the action of giving emergency breaths and compressions to create a blood flow for someone in cardiac arrest. The action is to give oxygen to the body and keep blood flowing around the body to stop the body (brain) being starved of oxygen and to get the heart strong enough to continue to pump again. If someone is in cardiac arrest you act straight away you go not hesitate.
First check the area is safe. Inflict pain by pressing into their collar bone hard and speak to them. Say “hello, hello are you okay?” Loudly. If there is no response to pain or words they are most probably in cardiac arrest. You can also check for a pulse or feel a persons breath on your cheek. If you suspect the patient has been electrocuted contact 999 first and ask for instructions as cpr is a risk to you. If they are in a situation that could cause harm to you do not attempt first aid either. Once you’ve obtained they are suffering cardiac arrest try to get them to the floor, carefully they will be flat and floppy, if on a bed do not move them position yourself for access to them if safe to do so. When flat gently tilt their head back so that you can get a clear airway and do that their tongue can’t block their airway as easily. For a baby start with five rescue breaths covering their nose and mouth. The younger the child it’s more likely to be a respiratory problem so under 5s need to be started with five rescue breaths. For older adults begin compressions you want to do 30 compressions followed by two rescue breaths you breath into their mouth hard twice and resume compressions. Intertwine your hands with palms down and apply pressure downwards. You need to be beeping or standing bedside.You want to push hard so you can get about 5 cm in to their breastbone. You can find where to start compressions by searching for the centre of their chest normally just above the diaphragm or where the rib cage ends near to nipples and on the sternum. If doing cpr to a baby you want to find a point between their two nipples and use two fingers applying no more than four cm pressure and gently. For a child you would use one hand till they are more adult sized alike the adults cpr. The number is same for compressions no matter the age. You will need to this at a rate of 100-120 compressions a minute so quick and it’s easy to remember a rhythm if thinking of a song like staying alive. While doing thins about or call for help till a ambulance arrives. Send someone for a AED devise most shops and streets have these. If you call 999 they will tell you where the nearest one is and code to get it. If you are alone you may need to run for it after trying cpr if a 999 responder tells you too. The paddles are attached to the skin and the box will tell you how and what to do. Continue cpr till person comes round or help comes!
Chocking. Something so easy can happen to anyone. With a baby you want to do five hard back blows pushing downwards on a baby’s back. You want to put the baby on your lap facing a diagnal downwards position. If this doesn’t work turn baby over and begin to do chest thrusts place two fingers in middle of chest and gently compress five times. With a child lean them forward and give five hard back blows upwards again. If this doesn’t work then give five abdominal thrusts by turning them round and putting hands just above belly button and pulling in sharp five times. For a adult you do the same but harder. If this doesn’t work turn repeat over again and start the back blows again. Call 999 and shout for help once you’ve tried once and continue till blockage is clear. If not clear and person stops breathing then begin cpr.
Burns and scalds. First remove the source of burn/ scald and get to safety. Cool the burn with cool water for twenty minutes. Remove anything touching burnt area like clothes. Wrap the burn in clingfilm. Do not apply creams or touch the area. Use paracetamol and or ibuprofen for pain and depending on severity seek medical attention. Chemical burns always need attention. If this is from a fire get checked as your airways will need checking too.
Big wounds or cuts. I’m not taking a papercut in talking a deep cut, That won’t stop bleeding first apply pressure to wound with gauze or clean clothing. If a leg or arm raise the limb if you can to stop blood rushing out. If it soaks through apply more layers do not remove layer. If the bleeding is severe apply a tourniquet. Call for help if severe and 999. Get checked as you may need more care such as stitches. Keep the person warm.
Shock. If a person is in shock from a accident or something else it can cause the body to shut down. If you suspect someone is in shock lay them down and get help. Try not to scare them more. Elevate their feet if you can if suspected injury below hips. Keep warm and comfortable. Do not give food or drink. Loosen clothing and keep calm.
Recovery position if a person is breathing but unconscious and no visible serious injury to limbs put in recovery position if you suspect spinal injury do not attempt. This is to stop a person from vomiting and swallowing while unconscious so very important to do.You can see how to do this and images on how to put someone in this position.
I hope this has somewhat helps and you can find more information online here are some useful videos to help. Hopefully you never have to use this knowledge.
Cpr on baby: https://youtu.be/avYRvVHAvfM
Cpr on child: https://youtu.be/0aV9NS0ogiM
Chocking baby: https://youtu.be/oswDpwzbAV8
Chocking child or adult: https://www.redcross.org.uk/first-aid/learn-first-aid-for-babies-and-children/choking-child
How to put someone in recovery position: https://www.nhs.uk/video/pages/recovery-position.aspx